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Filters of some sort are essential to the operation of most electronic circuits. It is, therefore, in the interest of anyone involved in electronic circuit design to have the ability to develop filter circuits capable of meeting a given set of specifications.
Unfortunately, many in the electronics field are uncomfortable with the subject, whether due to a lack of familiarity with it, or a reluctance to grapple with the mathematics involved in a complex filter design.
This Application Note is intended to serve as a very basic introduction to some of the fundamental concepts and terms associated with filters. It will not turn a novice into a filter designer, but it can serve as a starting point for those wishing to learn more about filter design.
In circuit theory, a filter is an electrical network that alters the amplitude and/or phase characteristics of a signal with respect to frequency. Ideally, a filter will not add new frequencies to the input signal, nor will it change the component frequencies of that signal, but it will change the relative amplitudes of the various frequency components and/or their phase relationships. Filters are often used in electronic systems to emphasize signals in certain frequency ranges and reject signals in other frequency ranges.